This lecture focuses on how German diplomats before 1914 supported what we now call Third World nationalist movements, and how this opened possibilities for new relationships between Germany and the representatives of new nations. During Iran’s Constitutional Revolution (1906-1911), German diplomats openly supported the Iranian nationalist movement, particularly its claims to sovereignty. These referred to the Persian nationalists’ desire for a functioning parliament as well as the all-important issue of economic sovereignty regarding state debt and the ownership of natural resources. In contrast to Germany, British and Russian diplomats did not recognize the claims of what they called “Muslim nations,” including Iran. Discussions between British and German diplomats in Tehran raised the issue of the sovereignty claims—and their emotional appeals to dignity, respect, and common humanity—put forward by Iran’s nationalist politicians. The fact that Germany supported Iran’s national movement, and Britain and Russia did not, had significant repercussions in the following decades.