My presentation, "Antiquities Looting and Smuggling: Legal and Market-Based Solutions to Italy’s Ancient Problem", will focus on Italy's ancient history of antiquities looting, the role of tombaroli and other figures in the trafficking chain of command, the methods the Italian government has employed to crack down on the problem, and the lack of a consistent and reliable legal framework to prosecute offenders. As of now, the Italian government has chosen to approach the issue with somewhat vague legal measures that focus on cultural property rights violations, rather than acknowledging the reasons that looting is an economically-appealing option for many. Drawing upon information found in legal journals, interviews, current news, and research on social network analysis, this presentation asks whether recognizing looting as a symptom of socioeconomic inequality can better inform efforts to involve local communities in working to preserve their heritage. I present alternative remedies Italy can take, especially from a markets perspective, with the aim of stemming the source. This can include providing financial incentives to hand over discoveries to the government, creating job opportunities around the physical protection of sites, and sharing some of the commercial wealth that antiquities' sales generate among the communities from which they are removed. I will use specific examples from data, case studies, and objects to provide a more comprehensive picture about antiquities trafficking in Italy that encourages a reframing of the way we perceive this complex problem, with the aim of ultimately implementing more effective solutions.