p. 77 item #1 Zhoumo 週末means weekend but pre-modern China had no seven-day week, they had ten day cycles within a recurring cycle of sixty days. So zhoumo 週末is a translation of the foreign word weekend to fit in with a"Western" week rather than an indigenous Chinese word. Zhou 周means a cycle and mo means end. The graph for mo 末is a tree with the tip marked by a horizontal line. The antonym of mo 末is ben本, a tree with the trunk marked, meaning foundation, basis. There is a common idiom benmo 本末meaning from beginning to end, from the basics to the minutest details.
#3. Kan看, to look, to watch, to read, to depend. The graph is a hand over an eye. Repeated, kankan看看, it means take a look, read it over.
#4. dianshi電視, television. This is a modern translation, but instead of "viewing from afar" the Chinese chose "viewing by electricity." Tele means far in Greek. Dian 電means electric (from lightning) and shi 視means to view or examine. The Japanese simply borrowed the Western word and wrote terebi. The Chinese are generally reluctant simply to "spell out" a foreign word, though they often do that with names of persons. Dianying 電影is an adjective-noun compound, like waiguo 外國(#16), outside-nation.
p. 78 #5 Changge唱歌, "to sing songs" is a verb-object compound, like daqiu打球, qingke請客, etc.. Always note the internal grammar of a compound.
#19, suoyi所以, "so, therefore," literally means "that by which," with suo 所= that which and yi 以= by. That by which = the reason why. Originally there were no prepositions in Chinese, only verbs that sometimes double as prepositions (like wei 為and gei給). Yi 以was once a full verb meaning "to take up and use, to serve as" and that sense of the word occasionally is still found in modern Chinese. Since suo 所always precedes a verb, the compound suoyi might be rendered "[that] which serves [to explain why] . . ." That's how suoyi 所以comes to be a Chinese language equivalent of "therefore." The original meaning of suo 所is "place." Something is "placed under" or "subjected to" the action of the verb immediately following. Wo suo kan 我所看= that which I see / or saw.
p. 80, #1, haojiu 好久= "a good long time," jiu 久alone means a long time.
#2, cuo2 錯means "off, misses (slightly)"
#3, xiang3想﹐ to want, to think, to yearn; often takes the suffix dao 到(to reach to). Graphically, tree on the left, eye to the right; the two form the phonetic, a word meaning "mutual, aspect of" and read in both the first and the fourth tones with difference of meaning. Under tree-and-eye is the element for heart at the bottom of the character. Xiang 想often has to do with wishing for something not immediately present. Xiangjia34 想家means homesick. There is a long series of words for thinking, wishing, etc., which include the word for heart (or perhaps heart-and-mind since Chinese xin心-heart also means mind). Make a separate vocabulary page for all words denoting mental action. Study compounds with xin 心either in first or second position, xinli 心理and dianxin點心.
p. 81, #4 juede覺得, to feel, to be aware of. Note the close tie between jue 2覺and xue2 學(study). Jue 覺is a Buddhist term meaning "awaken or realize." Certain common Chinese verbs of cognition (dong懂, ren認) take the suffix de得 . jue覺 occasionally is pronounced jiao 覺as in the compound sleep to let drop the eyes (shui4 睡)and drop one's consciousness (jiao4覺).
#5 youyisi 有意思= to have interest (VO) is the "internal grammar," but the three words amount to a stative verb, to be interesting, in relation to the rest of a sentence ("external grammar").
#8, p. 82, #1, suanle 算了and duile對了. The le 了(to bring to an end) finalizes the verb in these expressions. Compare English "for sure" or "for good."