Ph.D. 1969 (Government and Russian Studies), Columbia; M.A. 1962 (Government and Russian Studies), B.S. (Economics and Public Policy), 1960, Indiana University
Areas of Research/Interest
Russian politics and history since 1917, U.S. -Soviet/Russian relations, American media coverage of the Soviet Union and Russia.
American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies; American Historical Association; American Political Science Association; Council on Foreign Relations; Editorial Board, Post-Soviet Affairs; Consultant/Commentator, CBS News.
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship (two); ACLS Grant (three); Rockefeller Foundation Humanitarian Fellowship; NEH Fellowship; Newspaper Guild Page One Award for Column Writing; Olive Branch Award for Magazine Writing; Indiana University Annual Distinguished Alumni Award.
Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888-1938. New York: Knopf and Oxford University Press. 1973 and 1980.
Rethinking the Soviet Experience: Politics and History Since 1917. New York: Oxford University Press. 1985.
Sovieticus: American Perceptions and Soviet Realities. New York: Norton. 1985 and 1986.
Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia. New York: Norton. 2000 and 2001.
Rethinking Russia: The Soviet Experience and Its Aftermath. New York: Columbia University. Forthcoming.