Upon its founding in 1954, the Newport Jazz Festival set the modern evolution of U.S. music festivals in motion and its founding producer George Wein became the single most significant entrepreneurial figure in the field. That Newport was established as a nonprofit enterprise says much about the motivations that informed it. While British scholar George McKay has stressed the “carnivalesque” elements of music festivals in England during the same era, at Newport any suggestion of the carnivalesque was balanced by a strong impulse toward cultural elevation and legitimation. As such, it typified the ambivalent status that jazz writ large occupied in mid-20th century American culture, teetering between popular music and high art. When enthusiastic dancing broke out during Duke Ellington’s epochal 1956 appearance, George Wein found his vision of aesthetic and cultural order unsettled. When four years later, the 1960 Festival was disrupted by a riot that was motivated primarily by young college students on summer break, Newport had reached a crisis point. Although jazz by 1960 was not commonly viewed as “youth music,” the events at Newport laid the groundwork for festivals to become perhaps the defining medium of the burgeoning youth culture.