How humans came to be musical creatures is an age-old question, one that has been linked to modern evolutionary thinking since its inauguration in Darwin’s writings. Nevertheless, research into the evolutionary history of human musical capacities has burgeoned in the last two decades, enough to justify speaking of a subdiscipline of “evolutionary musicology.” What defines this field of study? What is its place in studies of human evolution? What can it hope to accomplish? What is its relation to conventional musicologies, to new trends such as posthumanism, and to central tenets of the humanities in general? Finally—of particular importance at this moment of burgeoning interest—what are the pitfalls evolutionary musicology must avoid?