My interests include comparing the movement of black West Indians from colonized and newly independent areas into American and European metropoles after World War II. Specifically, the racially oriented acclimation of these newcomers to their adopted homes is of particular importance. I seek to measure the influence of racial identity to community formation of West Indian enclaves in New York and London. Issues of national belonging and black pride framed by the racial difference of the migrants are of central importance. Ideas of post-colonial cultural development also inform my work.