Much of the discourse abroad on Israel continues to focus on an outdated set of paradigms. Within Israel, there is a growing realization that the country’s core challenges have shifted – and with them, an internalization that Israel is at a crossroads. It is home to some of the world’s most innovative private sector companies as well as to some of the leading universities and medical centers. At the same time, a very large – and increasing – share of the population is being left behind, ill-equipped to meet the demands of a global, competitive economy. Focusing on domestic changes, Ben-David explains their impact on Israel, and clearly presents what issues need to be addressed by the country while its window of opportunity is still open.