This paper exploits a change in copyright laws under the WWII Book Republication Program (BRP) to examine the effects of copyrights on science. Under the BRP, the price of German-owned science books declined by an average of 25 percent. Using two complementary identification strategies, we show that each 10 percent decline in price was associated with a 43 percent increase in citations. Lower prices increased citations by helping to distribute BRP books across US libraries, including less affluent institutions. Results are confirmed by two alternative measures of scientific output: new PhDs and US patents that use knowledge in BRP books.
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