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Abstract: There is ever growing economic interest in how limited attention affects behavior and therefore what choice reveals about preferences. I study how attentional constraints alter patterns of substitution in demand. In particular, I show that goods that are substitutes in utility may behaviorally appear as complements due to limits on attention. I label this phenomenon “attentional complementarity”. Adopting the framework of rational inattention I decompose the attentional problem highlighting the channels that influence substitution patterns under general attentional constraints. I conduct experimental tests of predictions of the model by using a cognitively demanding task as a proxy for costly attention.