Metabolic Cost of Adaptation of Single Yeast Cells Under Unforeseen Challenge
Cells are known to be able to adapt to changing environments. In the classical neo-Darwinian picture, random genetic mutations cause phenotypic variations, enabling adaptation to the new environment. In addition non-genetic pathways are increasingly believed to play an important role in rapid adaptation, notably in the emergence of drug resistance. However, the coupling between metabolic cost and adaptation has never been addressed. The demonstration that metabolic trajectories predict a priori adaptation events offer the first evidence of the tight energetic coupling between the metabolism and regulatory processes in adaptation. This process allows S. cerevisiae to adapt on a physiological time scale, but related phenomena may also be important in other processes, such as the emergence of drug resistance in cancer, differentiation and reprogramming.