Institut Jacques Monod, Paris
Mechanics of collective cell behaviors
The directed migration of cell collectives is essential in various physiological processes, such as epiboly, drosophila dorsal closure and convergent extension during morphogenesis as well as pathological events like wound healing and cancer metastasis. Collective cell migration leads to the emergence of coordinatedmovements over multiple cells. In the first part, we will show that the establishment of single-cell level polarity could drive coordinated movements of epithelial cells. We designed a minimalistic model system to generate one-dimensional epithelial trains confined in ring-shaped patterns, permitting simplified biomechanical analysis of collective cell migration. Our approaches show that the maintenance of coordinatedmigration relies on the acquisition of a front-back polarity of each single cell but not on cell-cell junctions and large-scale dynamics. In the second part, we will show how the coupling between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions drive nematic behaviors of cellular monolayers and cell extrusion mechanisms from epithelial tissues.