This course explores the interactions of Jews and other Western Europeans after World War II, noting their interlocking histories and memories even after the Holocaust. Students will learn about Western European Jewish life from Emancipation through the early 20th century, the Holocaust and the immediate postwar turmoil especially in Germany, Italy and France. They will analyze how Italians, Germans -- East and West – and French citizens did or did not come to terms with the Fascist and Nazi past. They will study Jewish perspectives on their lives in Europe, including those of the Displaced Persons, but also those of Jews who chose to stay in their homelands. The class will learn why these Jews remained, how they experienced their citizenship, and how they interacted with non-Jews. Readings will analyze Jewish memories and memory cultures in a variety of nations and segments of society. Assignments look at conflicting European and Jewish historical memories, including the general silence about the Holocaust of the early postwar years, the Jewish demand for reparations, the attractions of Israel for some Jews, and the growing acknowledgement of the Holocaust in political culture as well as the building of museums and monuments about Jewish history and the Holocaust.