Part II of the required Introductory course sequence begins with the independence era, and treats the emergence of a Hemispheric axis for LatiPart II of the required Introductory course sequence begins with the independence era, and treats the emergence of a Hemispheric axis for Latin America and the Caribbean, in which the emergence of a multiplicity of nation states, and relations with the United States, loom large, supplanted somewhat in the 21st century by renewed connections (foreign aid, investment, and a heavy flow of migrants) between Spain, France, and Holland, and their former colonies. Students learn about contending paradigms of sovereignty, patrimony, liberalism, citizenship, and development. The course examines the development of democratic national government and periodic authoritarian rule, as well as social violence, foreign military intervention, and civil war. The course also treats continuing problems of inequality, and the impact of pressure by other countries and international organizations on political and economic arrangements in the region. Alongside of such issues, students are introduced to expressive culture and the arts, to competing paradigms of formal and commemorative memory and history, and to the emergence of tourism and the UNESCO-associated ?culture industry?. The course ends with in-depth analysis of the impact of globalization, neoliberal policies, emerging social movements, increased political participation and decentralization of governance, and the rise of populist governments. Throughout the course, students work closely with instructors to develop a scholarly genealogy of key concepts and processes within which they will be able to frame the themes and methods of their Master?s Projects.